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The features are interesting, for example, because they are very sharp, spatially intermittent the distance between features is much larger than the features themselves , or have a fractal form.

Many of these features were first studied in the laboratory, and have subsequently been recognized throughout the universe. Examples of complexity and complex structures in plasmas include:.

Striations or string-like structures, [50] also known as Birkeland currents , are seen in many plasmas, like the plasma ball , the aurora , [51] lightning , [52] electric arcs , solar flares , [53] and supernova remnants.

Filamentation also refers to the self-focusing of a high power laser pulse. At high powers, the nonlinear part of the index of refraction becomes important and causes a higher index of refraction in the center of the laser beam, where the laser is brighter than at the edges, causing a feedback that focuses the laser even more.

The tighter focused laser has a higher peak brightness irradiance that forms a plasma. The plasma has an index of refraction lower than one, and causes a defocusing of the laser beam.

The interplay of the focusing index of refraction, and the defocusing plasma makes the formation of a long filament of plasma that can be micrometers to kilometers in length.

The strength and range of the electric force and the good conductivity of plasmas usually ensure that the densities of positive and negative charges in any sizeable region are equal "quasineutrality".

A plasma with a significant excess of charge density, or, in the extreme case, is composed of a single species, is called a non-neutral plasma.

In such a plasma, electric fields play a dominant role. Examples are charged particle beams , an electron cloud in a Penning trap and positron plasmas.

A dusty plasma contains tiny charged particles of dust typically found in space. The dust particles acquire high charges and interact with each other.

A plasma that contains larger particles is called grain plasma. Under laboratory conditions, dusty plasmas are also called complex plasmas.

Impermeable plasma is a type of thermal plasma which acts like an impermeable solid with respect to gas or cold plasma and can be physically pushed.

While spectroscopic data on the characteristics of plasma were claimed to be difficult to obtain due to the high pressure, the passive effect of plasma on synthesis of different nanostructures clearly suggested the effective confinement.

They also showed that upon maintaining the impermeability for a few tens of seconds, screening of ions at the plasma-gas interface could give rise to a strong secondary mode of heating known as viscous heating leading to different kinetics of reactions and formation of complex nanomaterials.

To completely describe the state of a plasma, all of the particle locations and velocities that describe the electromagnetic field in the plasma region would need to be written down.

However, it is generally not practical or necessary to keep track of all the particles in a plasma. Therefore, plasma physicists commonly use less detailed descriptions, of which there are two main types:.

Fluid models describe plasmas in terms of smoothed quantities, like density and averaged velocity around each position see Plasma parameters.

One simple fluid model, magnetohydrodynamics , treats the plasma as a single fluid governed by a combination of Maxwell's equations and the Navier—Stokes equations.

A more general description is the two-fluid plasma, [65] where the ions and electrons are described separately. Fluid models are often accurate when collisionality is sufficiently high to keep the plasma velocity distribution close to a Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution.

Because fluid models usually describe the plasma in terms of a single flow at a certain temperature at each spatial location, they can neither capture velocity space structures like beams or double layers , nor resolve wave-particle effects.

Kinetic models describe the particle velocity distribution function at each point in the plasma and therefore do not need to assume a Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution.

A kinetic description is often necessary for collisionless plasmas. There are two common approaches to kinetic description of a plasma. One is based on representing the smoothed distribution function on a grid in velocity and position.

The other, known as the particle-in-cell PIC technique, includes kinetic information by following the trajectories of a large number of individual particles.

Kinetic models are generally more computationally intensive than fluid models. The Vlasov equation may be used to describe the dynamics of a system of charged particles interacting with an electromagnetic field.

In magnetized plasmas, a gyrokinetic approach can substantially reduce the computational expense of a fully kinetic simulation. Plasma generated in a laboratory setting and for industrial use can be generally categorized by:.

Just like the many uses of plasma, there are several means for its generation. However, one principle is common to all of them: there must be energy input to produce and sustain it.

The potential difference and subsequent electric field pull the bound electrons negative toward the anode positive electrode while the cathode negative electrode pulls the nucleus.

The underlying process is the Townsend avalanche , where collisions between electrons and neutral gas atoms create more ions and electrons as can be seen in the figure on the right.

The first impact of an electron on an atom results in one ion and two electrons. Therefore, the number of charged particles increases rapidly in the millions only "after about 20 successive sets of collisions", [68] mainly due to a small mean free path average distance travelled between collisions.

With ample current density and ionisation, this forms a luminous electric arc a continuous electric discharge similar to lightning between the electrodes.

This is so because when thermal plasmas are generated, electrical energy is given to electrons, which, due to their great mobility and large numbers, are able to disperse it rapidly and by elastic collision without energy loss to the heavy particles.

Because of their sizable temperature and density ranges, plasmas find applications in many fields of research, technology and industry.

A world effort was triggered in the s to study magnetohydrodynamic converters in order to bring MHD power conversion to market with commercial power plants of a new kind, converting the kinetic energy of a high velocity plasma into electricity with no moving parts at a high efficiency.

Research was also conducted in the field of supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics to study plasma interaction with magnetic fields to eventually achieve passive and even active flow control around vehicles or projectiles, in order to soften and mitigate shock waves , lower thermal transfer and reduce drag.

Such ionized gases used in "plasma technology" "technological" or "engineered" plasmas are usually weakly ionized gases in the sense that only a tiny fraction of the gas molecules are ionized.

In the presence of magnetics fields, the study of such magnetized nonthermal weakly ionized gases involves resistive magnetohydrodynamics with low magnetic Reynolds number , a challenging field of plasma physics where calculations require dyadic tensors in a 7-dimensional phase space.

When used in combination with a high Hall parameter , a critical value triggers the problematic electrothermal instability which limited these technological developments.

Plasmas are the object of study of the academic field of plasma science or plasma physics , [85] including sub-disciplines such as space plasma physics.

It currently involves the following fields of active research and features across many journals , whose interest includes:. Hall effect thruster.

The electric field in a plasma double layer is so effective at accelerating ions that electric fields are used in ion drives.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Plasma. One of the four fundamental states of matter. Solid mechanics. Fluid mechanics.

Surface tension Capillary action. Main article: Degree of ionization. See also: Spitzer resistivity. Main article: Nonthermal plasma.

See also: Anisothermal plasma. Further information: Astrophysical plasma , Interstellar medium , and Intergalactic space. See also: Magnetohydrodynamics.

Main article: Plasma modeling. Main articles: magnetohydrodynamic converter , magnetohydrodynamic generator , and magnetohydrodynamic drive. See also: Electrothermal instability.

Plasma theory Plasma equilibria and stability Plasma interactions with waves and beams Guiding center Adiabatic invariant Debye sheath Coulomb collision Plasmas in nature Astrophysical plasma Northern and southern polar lights The Earth's ionosphere Interplanetary medium Planetary magnetospheres Space plasma Industrial plasmas Plasma chemistry Plasma processing Plasma spray Plasma display Plasma sources Dusty plasmas Plasma diagnostics Thomson scattering Langmuir probe Ball-pen probe Faraday cup Spectroscopy Interferometry Ionospheric heating Incoherent scatter radar Plasma applications Dielectric barrier discharge Enhanced oil recovery Fusion power Plasma Actuator e.

Plasma acceleration Plasma medicine e. Dentistry [87] Plasma window. Play media. Physics portal. The voltage rises to its maximum value in the saturation stage, and thereafter it undergoes fluctuations of the various stages; while the current progressively increases throughout.

Introduction to Plasma Physics. Introduction to Plasma Dynamics. CRC Press. April Archived from the original on 7 April Guide to the Sun. Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 15 January Physics of the Solar Corona. An Introduction. Praxis Publishing. Archived from the original on 5 January Basics of Plasma Astrophysics.

Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 24 May CS1 maint: archived copy as title link "Radiant Matter". Archived from the original on 13 June Thomson — ".

Philosophical Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 August Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS American Journal of Physics.

Bibcode : AmJPh.. In Hirsh, Merle N. Gaseous Electronics. Academic Press. Archived from the original on 23 October Bibcode : Natur. Introduction to Plasma Physics and controlled fusion.

Springer International Publishing. Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy. Archived from the original on 24 December The Framework of Plasma Physics.

Westview Press. Plasma Dynamics. Oxford University Press. Spacecraft-Environment Interactions. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion.

Chen, Francis F. New York: Plenum Press. Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 25 October See October 3 notes. Introduction to Plasma Theory.

Marton ed. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.. Malcolm Haines' paper" PDF. Retrieved 7 April National Research Council U.

Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology. Washington, D. Bibcode : SchpJ Plasma-The Fourth State of Matter 3rd ed. Fundamentals of Plasma Physics.

Archived from the original on 2 February Elert, Glenn ed. The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 6 July Gurnett, D.

Berlin: Springer. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes. Geophysical Monograph Series. Bibcode : GMS Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 25 August Retrieved on Is it a Liquid, Solid, or Gas?

Retrieved 21 January Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. Register Log in. My Profile points. Log out. New Games Most Popular Games.

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