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Referendums in Germany are an element of direct democracy. On the federal level only two This page was last edited on 11 June , at (UTC). Das Referendum über den Verbleib des Vereinigten Königreichs in der Europäischen Union würde „keine 30 Sekunden mehr im Amt bleiben“, falls er das Referendum verlöre (“ wouldn't last 30 seconds if he lost the referendum”). directly responsible for the fraudulent elections and referendum in Belarus on 17 October and those who are responsible for severe human rights violations. Many translated example sentences containing "referendum vote" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Jetzt muss Cameron das angekündigte Referendum über einen EU-Austritt abhalten. Und er muss sagen, wie die gewünschten Reformen in der EU.

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Remain led in all of Scotland's 32 council areas. This was different from the outcome of the previous referendum on membership in the European Economic. directly responsible for the fraudulent elections and referendum in Belarus on 17 October and those who are responsible for severe human rights violations. Referendums in Germany are an element of direct democracy. On the federal level only two This page was last edited on 11 June , at (UTC).

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Latest survey's results on upcoming EU-Ukraine AA referendum in the Netherlands

British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens who live in the UK, or have lived abroad for under 15 years, can vote in the EU referendum this summer.

As with other elections, only people aged 18 and over will be allowed to cast their votes in the nationwide referendum.

But unlike the general election, members of the House of Lords and Commonwealth citizens in Gibraltar are also eligible to vote. Getty Anti-marketeers protest with placards before the Common Market referendum in Sign up for FREE now and never miss the top politics stories again.

The upcoming vote on EU membership will be the third UK-wide referendum in history. When was the last UK-wide referendum?

When was the first UK-wide referendum? Getty Margaret Thatcher votes in the referendum over Europe in Why are UK-wide referendums rare?

Who can vote in a referendum? Dominic Raab C. Elizabeth II Queen-in-Parliament. The Lord Fowler. Sir Keir Starmer L. Supreme Court. The Lord Reed.

Monetary Policy Committee. Referendums in the United Kingdom are occasionally held at a national, regional or local level. National referendums can be permitted by an Act of Parliament and are regulated through the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act , but they are by tradition extremely rare due to the ancient principle of parliamentary sovereignty meaning that they cannot be constitutionally binding on either the Government or Parliament , although they usually have a persuasive political effect.

Until the latter half of the twentieth century the concept of a referendum was widely seen in British politics as "unconstitutional" and an "alien device".

As of , only three national referendums have ever been held across the whole of the United Kingdom : in , and most recently in This was the European Communities membership referendum which was held two and a half years after the United Kingdom became a member on 1 January and was the first national referendum ever to be held within the United Kingdom.

The second took place forty-one years later by which time the various European organisations with the exception of EAEC had been integrated by subsequent treaty ratifications into the European Union EU when the electorate was asked to vote again on the issue of continued membership in the European Union membership referendum.

The AV referendum on the proposal to use the alternative vote system in parliamentary elections is the only UK-wide referendum that has been held on a domestic issue.

The referendum was held as a result of the Conservative — Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement which was drawn up after the general election.

The Government of the United Kingdom has also to date held eleven major referendums within the constituent countries of England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland on issues of devolution , sovereignty and independence ; the first such referendum was the Northern Ireland border poll and, as of , the most recent is the Scottish independence referendum.

There have also been numerous referendums held by local authorities on issues such as temperance and directly elected mayors. Major referendums have been rare in the UK, and have only been held on major constitutional issues.

Historically referendums within the United Kingdom were opposed on the supposition that they violate the principle of parliamentary sovereignty.

In May the then Prime Minister Winston Churchill suggested holding a referendum over the question of extending the life of his wartime Coalition until victory was won over Japan.

However, Deputy Prime Minister Clement Attlee refused, saying "I could not consent to the introduction into our national life of a device so alien to all our traditions as the referendum which has only too often been the instrument of Nazism and Fascism.

There are two types of referendum that have been held by the UK Government, pre-legislative held before proposed legislation is passed and post-legislative held after legislation is passed.

To date the previous three UK-wide referendums in , and were all pre-legislative. Referendums are not legally binding, so legally the Government can ignore the results; for example, even if the result of a pre-legislative referendum were a majority of "No" for a proposed law, Parliament could pass it anyway, because parliament is sovereign.

For any UK-wide referendum to be held legislation has to be passed by the UK Parliament for each vote to take place, as there is no pre-determined format or voting franchise for any such vote.

However, unlike a general election there is no legal requirement for HM Government not to take any official position in any such vote.

For example, in under the then Prime Minister Harold Wilson the government formally recommended a "Yes" vote to staying in the European Community and in the government formally recommended a "Remain" vote to stay in the European Union a decision which indirectly led to the resignation of David Cameron as Prime Minister following the decision to "Leave the European Union" by the British electorate.

In the referendum no official position was taken as the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government was split on the issue.

Legally, Parliament at any point in future could reverse legislation approved by referendum, because the concept of parliamentary sovereignty means no Parliament can prevent a future Parliament from amending or repealing legislation.

Finally, under the Local Government Act , there is a provision under which non-binding local referendums on any issue can be called by small groups of voters.

This power exists only for parish councils, and not larger authorities, and is commonly known as the "Parish Poll". Six local voters may call a meeting, and if ten voters or a third of the meeting whichever is smaller agree, the council must carry out a referendum in 14—25 days.

The referendum is merely advisory , but if there is a substantial majority and the results are well-publicised, it may be influential. The Labour Government of — held five referendums on devolution , four of which received a yes majority.

Despite the number of referendums that was held during this period no UK-wide referendum was held.

One concerning the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was cancelled, given the French and Dutch rejections of the treaty. Another, on whether the UK should adopt the euro , was never held.

The Labour manifesto for the general election stated "We are committed to a referendum on the voting system for the House of Commons.

After the inconclusive General Election the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives formed a coalition. As part of the coalition agreement , both parties formally committed to holding a referendum on changes to the electoral system.

The referendum was held on 5 May and was defeated. Since the Government of Wales Act became law, there can be referendums in Wales asking the people whether the National Assembly for Wales should be given greater law-making powers.

The Scottish Government held a referendum on Scottish independence on 18 September It attracted a turnout of The majority In March the Scottish Parliament authorised the Scottish Government to seek to hold a proposed second Scottish independence referendum.

The Conservative Party announced in that they planned to hold a referendum on whether Britain should remain in the European Union following a renegotiation of powers between the UK and EU , in Following the United Kingdom general election the Prime Minister , David Cameron committed the new Conservative government to holding the referendum.

It took place on 23 June There was no independent public body to regulate referendums within the United Kingdom until the Labour government led by Tony Blair in set out a framework for the running of all future referendums when the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act or PPERA was passed, creating and giving the Electoral Commission responsibility for running all elections and such future referendums.

The act also permitted the appointment of a "chief counting officer" CCO to oversee all future UK-wide referendums which would be held by the chairperson of the Electoral Commission.

Separate legislation i. In the following is a list of legislation which has been passed by the UK Parliament to enable the holding of the following UK-wide referendums.

To date only three referendums have been held which have covered the whole of the United Kingdom. The following is a description of each of the three national referendums.

All of the major political parties and mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. However, there were significant splits within the ruling Labour party, the membership of which had voted in favour of withdrawal at a one-day party conference on 26 April Since the cabinet was split between strongly pro-European and strongly anti-European ministers, Harold Wilson suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility and allowed ministers to publicly campaign on either side.

Seven of the twenty-three members of the cabinet opposed EC membership and the party was formally neutral on the issue. The two campaign groups in the referendum were "Britain in Europe" advocating a yes vote and "National Referendum Campaign" advocating a no vote.

In line with the outcome of the vote, the United Kingdom remained a member of the European Communities which would later become the European Union.

The alternative vote referendum, as part of the Conservative — Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement drawn up after the general election , was a nationwide vote held on Thursday 5 May the same date as local elections in many areas to choose the method of electing MPs at subsequent general elections.

The referendum concerned whether to replace the present " first-past-the-post " system with the " alternative vote " AV method. The voters were asked to vote yes or no on the question "At present, the UK uses the "first past the post" system to elect MPs to the House of Commons.

Should the "alternative vote" system be used instead? It was the first nationwide referendum to be held for some thirty six years and was legislated for under the provisions of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act and is to date the first and only UK-wide referendum to be held on a domestic issue.

On Thursday 23 June the United Kingdom voted for the second time in 41 years on its membership to what is now known as the European Union EU with the overseas territory Gibraltar also voting on the issue for the very first time.

The referendum was called after Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron made a manifesto commitment in the United Kingdom general election to undertake a renegotiation of the UK's membership to the European Union which would be followed by a in-out referendum.

All of the major political parties were in favour of remaining an EU member, except for a split within the Conservative Party. The cabinet was split between pro-EU and anti-EU ministers, and Cameron suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility , allowing ministers to publicly campaign on either side.

Seven of the 23 members of the Cabinet opposed continued EU membership. The referendum was legislated for under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act , which legally required HM Government to hold the referendum no later than 31 December and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act Of the voting areas, returned majority votes in favour of "Leave" whereas returned majority votes in favour of "Remain" which included every Scottish council area and all but five of the London boroughs.

The vote revealed divisions among the constituent nations of the United Kingdom, with England and Wales voting to leave, but Scotland and Northern Ireland voting to remain.

It was the first time a UK-wide referendum result had gone against the preferred choice of HM Government who had officially recommended a "Remain" vote and it led to a period of political turmoil.

As a direct consequence of losing the referendum, David Cameron announced his resignation as Prime Minister on the morning after the vote.

He left office three weeks later on 13 July, and was succeeded by Theresa May who later resigned in due to the issue remaining unresolved.

After the vote there was frequent public discussion as to whether the result of the referendum was advisory or mandatory, but the High Court stated on 3 November that, in the absence of specific provision in the enabling legislation and in this case there was none , "a referendum on any topic can only be advisory for the lawmakers in Parliament".

Since there have been eleven other referendums held by the Government of the United Kingdom within the constituent countries related to the issues of sovereignty, devolution and independence in Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales and in parts of England in the North East and London.

Referendums have been held in local areas in England, Wales and Scotland since These have covered issues such as local government administration, transport, prohibition , and other local questions.

The areas covered have generally corresponded to local authority areas, civil parishes, or wards , with all local government electors of the relevant area being eligible to vote.

Principal authorities in Great Britain have the ability to hold an advisory referendum on any issue relating to its services, financial provisions, and other matters that are relevant to the area.

A local advisory referendum is not required to follow the legislation governing the conduct of other referendums and elections in the UK.

The local authority can choose how to conduct a local referendum, and may choose to hold the vote solely by post , instead of using polling stations.

The City of Edinburgh Council held a postal-ballot referendum in February over whether voters supported the Council's proposed transport strategy.

These plans included a congestion charge which would have required motorists to pay a fee to enter the city at certain times of the day.

The result was announced on 22 February and the people of Edinburgh had rejected the proposals. Strathclyde Regional Council held a referendum in on the plans of the Conservative UK government to privatise water services within Scotland.

The government planned to sell the three recently established water authorities in Scotland, created under the Local Government etc.

Scotland Act as a precursor for privatisation, which would bring Scotland in line with the privatisation in England and Wales.

Strathclyde council, which previously held responsibility for water services, planned the referendum in response to overwhelming public opinion against the move.

Although the referendum had no legal effect, the plan to privatise Scottish water services was eventually dropped.

Legislation in England and Wales obliges local authorities to hold and abide by the results of referendums in certain circumstances. In England, raising Council Tax above a level proscribed by the Local Government Secretary requires approval in a referendum.

Only one council tax referendum has been held, on behalf of the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner , and the rise was rejected.

The Localism Act allows parish councils or local community groups to create neighbourhood development plans. The plans are intended to guide planning decisions within the neighbourhood area, by outlining the amount and type of development that should occur in the area, what land may be built upon and how existing buildings may be reused.

For a plan to come into force, it must be approved by the electorate in the local area in a referendum. Neighbourhood planning referendums have a high success rate, with all being approved as of December A local authority in England and Wales can hold a referendum on changing its executive arrangements between a directly elected mayor, a leader and cabinet, and in England only, a committee system.

If successful, the council must change its governance system, and hold an election for the mayor if necessary.

The process differs between England and Wales. In England, a referendum can be held on moving between any of the three systems, and following the vote another referendum may not be held for 10 years.

A council is not required to hold a referendum to change its executive arrangements, [note 2] but a change that has occurred as a result of a referendum can only be changed following another referendum.

In Wales, a council must hold a referendum to change between a mayor and leader and cabinet, with the minimum period between votes set at five years.

Fifty-three referendums have taken place in local authorities to establish whether there is support for directly elected mayors. Sixteen were successful and a mayoralty was established; in thirty-seven local authorities an elected mayor was rejected by voters.

An additional six referendums have been held on removing the post of elected mayor, with three mayoralties being retained, and three disestablished.

Two referendums have been held in response to a petition on moving to a committee system, in the Borough of Fylde and in West Dorset.

Both referendums were successful. The temperance movement led to two countries of the UK gaining the right to hold referendums on the sale of alcohol in the local area, upon the request of a number of local electors.

The Temperance Scotland Act provided that polls could be held in small local areas in Scotland to determine whether to instate a level of prohibition on the purchase of alcoholic beverages ; the provisions were later incorporated into the Licensing Scotland Act Between and 1, such polls were held, with the vast majority 1, held before The Act was extended to Monmouthshire in

Nach intensiven monatelangen Verhandlungen mit allen europäischen Regierungschefs verkündete Cameron am 2. Abonnieren Sie unsere FAZ. Jetzt Spile De muss also Farbe Blackjack Online Bonus, er muss sagen, wo er die Zukunft seines Landes sieht. Margaret Thatcher erteilte jedoch in einer vielbeachteten Rede in Brügge diesen Plänen eine Absage. Juniabgerufen am 2. BBC News, It argues that the UK government outside of the single market would be under less pressure to uphold existing standards of protection Fuge Games available under European Single Market rules. Last Referendum In Elizabeth II Succession Prerogative. Retrieved 3 November Separate legislation i. Great Poker Players argue that Real Texas Holdem Poker Online are no substitute for more deliberative processes within the existing framework of representative democracysuch as joining political parties, protest marches, voting within general elections and parliamentary select committee submissions. Once the Clerk receives the completed petition, the number of signatures is initially counted, followed by sample groups of signatures being taken and the signatories' names and addresses checked against the electoral roll. Retrieved 24 May Better Together. Recent examples are the New Zealand flag referendums held across andconducted by postal vote. Subscribe today. The spirit of Klick Management Spiele Niederlande Dezember Informationsseite zum Gesetz und dem Gesetzgebungsprozess, mit Weblinks zu verschiedenen Dokumenten aus dem Gesetzgebungsprozess. Elections Folgen Sie uns! Mit Stand vom Es ist ein Fehler aufgetreten.

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Die Konservative Partei veröffentlichte keine Stimmempfehlung. UK Parliament , aufgerufen und empfangen am 6. Die meisten politischen Parteien veröffentlichten eine offizielle Stimmempfehlung. This in turn prompted Nicola Sturgeon to reiterate the likelihood of another independence referendum in Scotland — albeit without mentioning a time frame for it.

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Die Petition war schon am Ergebnisse Live Com Mobile Osborne. Originally none of the Bundesländer states had provisions for a general binding referendum "Volksentscheid". Respect Party Faktisch sind alle Volksbegehren unzulässig, die irgendeine finanzielle Auswirkung haben würden, also auch Gesetzesvorschläge die Casino Kritik zur Folge hätten. Innenministerin Home Secretary. März englisch.

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The other referendum held in asked "Should there be a reform of our Justice system placing greater emphasis on the needs of victims, providing restitution and compensation for them and imposing minimum sentences and hard labour for all serious violent offences?

This measure passed by There was some debate over the phrasing of the referendum, as the question actually contains five separate questions; voters could agree with some, but not with others.

Following the submission of a petition on 22 August , the Clerk of the House verified to Parliament that the threshold for a CIR had been reached.

Supporters were hoping for the referendum to be held alongside the 8 November general election, but it was decided by Parliament to hold the referendum by postal ballot between 31 July and 21 August The question asked was "Should a smack as part of good parental correction be a criminal offence in New Zealand?

Voter turnout was While The perceived lack of implementation of successful referendums has led to calls for such referendums to be made binding on the government of the day, similar to the direct democracy said to exist in Switzerland.

By contrast, GayNZ. In some New Zealand media outlets, the Minaret controversy in Switzerland has also been cited as one current example of anti-minoritarian abuse of the 'citizens' referendum process.

Even amongst conservatives, the issue has become contentious. The Maxim Institute has announced its opposition to binding citizens referendums, citing the adverse fiscal management consequences that have ensued in the state of California in a recent paper from Richard Ekins, a University of Auckland legal academic.

They argue that CIRs are no substitute for more deliberative processes within the existing framework of representative democracy , such as joining political parties, protest marches, voting within general elections and parliamentary select committee submissions.

The following table lists those petition questions lodged with Clerk of the House from to The referendums were held in conjunction with the general election , which is likely to have played a role in the high proportion of voters.

Local government regional councils , territorial councils and District Health Boards may hold referendum on issues which they feel their citizens need to be consulted upon.

Referendums have been held on water fluoridation , changing the electoral system to Single Transferable Vote and merging authorities together.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. New Zealand. The Crown. Executive government. Local: Local government. Regions Territorial authorities. Foreign relations.

Related topics. Other countries. See also: Constitution of New Zealand. Main article: New Zealand corporal punishment referendum. New Zealand Parliament.

Retrieved 24 May Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 15 August Retrieved 16 May Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 3 October The New Zealand Herald.

Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 13 February Associated Press. Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 9 February Elections and referendums in New Zealand.

By-elections Supplementary elections. Categories : Referendums in New Zealand. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Local government Regions Territorial authorities.

New Zealand portal Other countries. Voting system. Compulsory military training. Compulsory Retirement Savings Scheme. Asset sales referendum.

New Zealand flag , first stage. New Zealand flag , second stage. Legalizing the sale, use, possession and production of cannabis.

Fifty-three referendums have taken place in local authorities to establish whether there is support for directly elected mayors.

Sixteen were successful and a mayoralty was established; in thirty-seven local authorities an elected mayor was rejected by voters.

An additional six referendums have been held on removing the post of elected mayor, with three mayoralties being retained, and three disestablished.

Two referendums have been held in response to a petition on moving to a committee system, in the Borough of Fylde and in West Dorset. Both referendums were successful.

The temperance movement led to two countries of the UK gaining the right to hold referendums on the sale of alcohol in the local area, upon the request of a number of local electors.

The Temperance Scotland Act provided that polls could be held in small local areas in Scotland to determine whether to instate a level of prohibition on the purchase of alcoholic beverages ; the provisions were later incorporated into the Licensing Scotland Act Between and 1, such polls were held, with the vast majority 1, held before The Act was extended to Monmouthshire in Under the terms of the Licensing Act , on the application of local electors, a referendum could be held in each local government area at seven-year intervals on whether that district should be "wet" or "dry" on the Sabbath.

Most districts in the border area and the southern industrial area went "wet" in or , with most others following suit in The whole of Wales was "wet" from , and the facility for further referendums was removed by the Sunday Licensing Act A parish poll is a referendum held in a civic parish under the Local Government Act Yes or No?

The poll was initiated by a supporter of the United Kingdom Independence Party , a political party noted for its Euroscepticism.

The poll was criticised by the chairman of the parish council as "little more than a publicity stunt. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is part of a series on United Kingdom politics Constitution. Sovereignty Rule of law Law Taxation. The Crown. Elizabeth II Succession Prerogative.

Bank of England. European Parliament Elections — Scottish Parliament Elections. Northern Ireland Assembly Elections. Welsh Parliament Senedd Cymru Elections.

UK Referendums. Northern Ireland. Crown dependencies. Isle of Man. Overseas Territories. Foreign relations. Other countries.

See also: United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, See also: United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, See also: United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Main articles: Edinburgh road tolls referendum, and Greater Manchester transport referendum, Main article: Strathclyde water referendum, Main article: England and Wales mayoral referendums.

Direct Democracy Campaign. Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 9 May Archived from the original on 31 July Financial Times.

Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 14 July The Irish Times. Archived from the original PDF on 15 August Retrieved 19 May Full Fact.

House of Commons Library. Retrieved 3 November BBC News. Retrieved 18 October Briefing Paper. House of Commons Library Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 20 December Retrieved 28 October Guardian News and Media.

Fylde Borough Council. May Bridport and Lyme Regis News. Retrieved 4 December The Daily Telegraph.

South Staffordshire Council. Retrieved 5 July East Stoke Parish Council. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 8 November Referendum results Negotiations Withdrawal agreement Timeline.

Vote Leave official campaign Leave. International reactions March to Leave. Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act To Fairer Votes.

Referendum Act Britain in Europe. The first nationwide referendum was on whether the UK should continue its membership of Europe in A majority of two-to-one voted in favour of staying part of the Common Market, which the UK entered in Referendums across the entire country are rare due to the principle of parliamentary sovereignty.

Sovereignty makes parliament the UK's supreme legal authority, which can make laws concerning anything. British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens who live in the UK, or have lived abroad for under 15 years, can vote in the EU referendum this summer.

As with other elections, only people aged 18 and over will be allowed to cast their votes in the nationwide referendum. But unlike the general election, members of the House of Lords and Commonwealth citizens in Gibraltar are also eligible to vote.

membership as well as on previous EU treaties. French referendum on the. Maastricht Treaty, Danish referenda on its EU membership, the Single. European Act. Polling of how people say they would vote in another referendum still suggests – as it has done throughout the last two years – that the. Originally 7 June was supposed to be the last day citizens could register for the upcoming referendum on EU membership in the UK on 23 June , now. Remain led in all of Scotland's 32 council areas. This was different from the outcome of the previous referendum on membership in the European Economic. Doch Red Star Live Schulleiter widersetzen sich der Anweisung. This would not be the case with Scotland and the rest of the UK. The Scottish government also opposes a limit on the free Zepter Des Ra of people which it considers to be damaging Limousine Mieten Schaffhausen the Scottish economy. In: The Daily Telegraph. Im Jahr seien 7,5 Millionen Personen nicht in die Wählerregister eingetragen gewesen. Europäischer Rat, 2. The Guardian Geändert hat sich nur eines: der Zeitdruck. Nun aber riskieren sie, dass ihnen Brüssel damit verbundene Vorteile aus anderen Verträgen wegnimmt. In: Bwin Online Poker Iphone. Landeshaushalt, öffentliche Abgaben, Dienst- und Versorgungsbezüge. Die britische Regierung will, dass die Schulen Risiko Spielen Kostenlos dieser Woche wieder öffnen.

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